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高一牛津版名词性从句语法小结

名词性从句包括主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句和宾语从句,它是高考考题中复现率最高的语法现象之一。近年来高考对名词性从句的考核主要体现在下列几方面:

(1)考查主句和从句间的连词使用,尤其是使用that,if,whether,what,whatever等连接词的使用情况。

(2)名词性从句中主句和从句中时态的一致。

(3)从句在主句中位置以及在主句中的语序。

高考重点会放在名词性从句中连词的使用上。大家一定要注意以下五种情况:

1.that在名词性从句中的几种使用情况。

2.what连接词的语言意义和语法功能。

3.whether在名词性从句中的使用场合和区别。

4.whoever和whomever在名词性从句中的语法功能。

5.what和which在具体语境下意义的不同。

主语从句

一.概述:

在复合句中充当主语成份的句子叫做主语从句。引导主语从句的词有连词that;whether。疑问代词who; what;which;whatever;whichever;whoever。疑问副词when;where;why;how等。

That she won the game made us very happy.

What is needed is careful preparation.

Whether she is coming or not doesn’t matter too much.

Who will go there makes no difference.

Which team will win the match is still not certain.

Why he did that was a secret.

二.that引导的主语从句

that引导主语从句时,在主语从句中没有任何意义,也不充当任何成分,只是单纯的连词,that引导主语从句时不能省略。

在通常情况下,that引导主语从句时,常常用it做形式主语,而将that从句置于句尾。

如果用that引导的从句做主语的句子是疑问句,就只能用it做形式主语。

That he will succeed is certain.

1.

That her mother was ill made her very sad.

It is certain that he will succeed.

It makes me very happy that she won the game.

It made her very sad that her mother was ill.

Is it certain that he will come?

Is it true that he would take the risk?

三.whether引导的主语从句

whether引导的主语从句如置于句首,只能用whether来引导。如果用it做形式主语,可以用whether来引导,有时也可以用if来引导。

Whether she will go there is not known

Whether I will accept the job is not decided.

It is not decided whether / if I will accept the job.

四.wh-疑问词引导的主语从句

用what;whatever;whoever;whichever引导主语从句时,不能用it做形式主语。但用when;where; why;wherever;whenever引导主语从句时,可以用it做形式主语。

What we need is your help.

What she said is not true.

Whatever I have is yours.

Whoever comes will be welcome.

Wherever she wants to go is not allowed.

Why he did this is not known.

It is not known why he did this.

It is still unknown when she will come.

表语从句

一.概述:

在复合句中充当表语成份的句子叫做表语从句。引导表语从句的连接词有连词that;whether;as if。疑问代词who;what;which。 e.g.

The trouble is that she has lost his telephone number.

The question is whether it is worth doing.

It looks as if it was going to snow.

That is where she was born.

That is how she did it.

That’s why she was late.

二.that引导的表语从句

that引导表语从句时,在表语从句中没有任何意义,也不充当任何成分,只是单纯的连词,而且不能省略。

2.

The fact is that the child is lying.

The trouble is that we are short of money.

The reason he did not come is that he was ill.

My opinion is that you should finish your homework first.

三.whether引导的表语从句

当表语从句为不确定语气时,用whether来引导。此时不能用if来代替。

The first question is whether it is true or not.

The question is whether people will buy it.

What I want to know is whether I should go there.

The question remains whether we can win the majority of the people.

四.wh-疑问词引导的表语从句

当表语从句为带有特定的疑问意义时,用wh-疑问词来引导。

The problem is how we could make him understand it.

The question is where we can get the books.

That’s why Wang Dong got scolded.

五.as if;as though引导的表语从句。

He looks as if / as though he were angry.

宾语从句

一.概述:

在复合句中充当宾语成份的句子叫做宾语从句。引导宾语从句的连接词有连词that;whether;if。疑问代词who;whose;what;which。

I think that he will be all right in a few days.

Do you know whom they are waiting for.

He asked whose dictionary it was.

Please pay attention to what the teacher said.

I d on’t know when and where we are going to have the meeting.

Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station?

二.功能:

1.) 作动词的宾语:

I wonder whether you can get here on time.

She told me that she would accept my invitation.

I hear that Physics isn’t e asy.

2.) 作介词的宾语:

Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another.

He differed from his colleagues in that he devoted his spare time to reading.

3.) 作形容词的宾语:

在afraid;anxious;certain;determined;glad;proud;surprised;worried;

3.

sorry;thankful;ashamed;disappointed;pleased;satisfied;content等形容词后面用that引导宾语从句。

I’m very pleased that you all have passed the examination.

I’m afraid that I have made a mistake.

We are not sure whether we can persuade him out of smoking.

三.that引导的宾语从句

that引导是陈述句的宾语从句。that只是单纯的连词,在宾语从句中没有任何意义,也不充当任何成分,只是单纯的连词,一般情况下可以省略。

I told him (that) he was wrong.

Let’s suppose (that) one day this happens to you.

在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,人们通常把that引导的宾语从句移到句子的后面去,而用it做形式宾语,这时that一般不能省略。

We think it wrong that he told a lie to his parents.

We thought it a pity that she missed the chance.

He has made it clear that he won’t agree to the plan.

We consider it necessary that we should open our door to the outside world.

主句的谓语动词是agree;argue;hold;learn;maintain(主张);observe;contend;remark(评论); state;suggest;announce时,引导宾语从句的连词that通常不能省略。

当复合句中含有多个并列的宾语从句时,特别是当第一个宾语从句比较长的时候,第一个宾语从句的连词that可省也可不省略,但后面的宾语从句前的连词that不能省略。

I wish (that) we could go sightseeing in Hangzhou this summer and that we could buy some clothes on our way back in Shanghai.

四.whether;if引导的宾语从句

当宾语从句表示不肯定或疑问意义时由whether;if来引导。表示“是否”,“是不是”时,一般可以互换。但是在句子中如果有or not, 只能用whether。此外,在做介词的宾语从句时也只能用whether, 而不能用if来引导。

He asked if / whether she would come.

I don’t know whether he will come or not.

They are talking about whether he will win the game.

Everything depends on whether you agree with us.

五.wh-疑问词引导的宾语从句

You may ask him when he will come.

Do you know who will come to dinner this evening?

He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.

Please tell me where you are going.

He didn’t know why she didn’t go to school that day

I wonder whom she wants to see.

六.宾语从句的语序:

宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序。

4.

She wants to know whether I like that film.

The teacher asked me if I could finish my homework on time

Do you know why January is hotter than July in Australia?

I’m not interested in what he is doing.

七.宾语从句的时态:

宾语从句的时态必须接受并服从主句谓语动词时态的要求。当主句谓语动词的时态是现在时或将来时时,宾语从句可以根据需要选用任何一种时态。当主句谓语动词的时态是过去时时,宾语从句只能在过去时态中进行选择。

She says that she works from Monday to Friday.

She says that she will have a message on his desk.

She says that she has never been to the Great Wall.

He said that they were having a meeting at that time.

He said that he would do everything he could to help her.

但是如果宾语从句是客观真理时,则用一般现在时。

The teacher said that light travels much faster than sound.

The teacher told us that nothing is difficult if we put our hearts into it.

同位语从句

一.概述:

在复合句中充当同位语成份的句子叫做同位语从句。同位语从句用在某些名词如idea;fact;news;promise 之后,说明或解释这些名词。引导同位语从句的连接词有连词that。疑问副词when;where;how等。

I have no idea when he will be back.

We heard the news that our team had won.

There arose the question where we could get the loan.

二.that引导的同位语从句

在下列名词后面用that引导同位语从句。他们是:answer;belief;doubt;fact;hope;idea;information; knowledge;law;news;opinion;plan;suggestion;thought;truth;explanation;order。

I had no idea that you were here.

The fact that he won the first prize can’t be denied.

Have you heard the news that Mary will be back soon.

I have no idea where he has gone.

She had no idea how she should do.

三.应注意的问题:

在动词demand;proposal;suggestion等后面所跟的同位语从句谓语动词要用虚拟语气“should+动词原形”或“动词原形”。

The suggestion that the plan (should) be delayed will be discussed tomorrow.

She refused the demand that he should do the work alone.

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